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Tajweed – a profound discipline dedicated to preserving the purity and eloquence of the divine text – is hidden in the rhythmic cadence of Quranic recitation. Among its complex rules is the enchanting concept of “Madd,” a nuanced form of elongation that brings the Holy Quran’s verses to life.

As we journey through the Rules of Madd in Tajweed, we will delve into the subtle complexities that govern the elongation of specific letters, thereby opening a harmonious resonance that will enhance the spiritual experience of Quranic recitation

This investigation not only reveals the technical aspects of Madd but also emphasizes its profound importance in conveying the sacred verses’ intended meaning and sublime beauty. 

What is Madd in the Quran? 

Madd means to stretch a sound, and there are three Madd letters: ( – – ). If there is a Damma before wow sakin, we stretch it for two counts and call it wow Madd. When there is a Fatha before alif, we stretch it twice and call it Alif Madd.

Types Of Madd Letters

When these hamzas appear in the same word, one with a sukoon sign and the other with a Madd letter, it is called Madd Badal to convert the second hamza into a Madd letter in the movement of the first hamza.

The difficulty in pronouncing that occurs when two hamzas are consecutive is why this rule exists. When you examine the rule and its pronunciation, you may realize that you have been applying the rules without realizing it since you began reading the Quran.

Types of Madd in the Quran

In Tajweed, there are two types of Madd:

Madd Asli (Original Madd): 

There can be no letter without this kind of madness. It happens when hamza or sukoon comes before any of the three Madd letters.

Two harakahs represent the time it takes to open one finger after making a closed fist. One harakah is the time it takes to open two fingers consecutively.

Alif (), Waaw (), and Yaa () are the three letters that elongate in this manner. In this case, the elongation is counted as one vowel length (harakah).

Madd Far’i (Secondary Madd): 

When a vowelized letter is followed by one of the three letters (), in this case, the elongation is counted as two vowel lengths (harakat). It is the kind of madd that, for a specific purpose, is added to madd asli.

Madd is essential to the beauty and precision of Quranic recitation. Proper use of Madd aids in correct word pronunciation, improves recitation rhythm, and reflects the intended meanings of the verses. 

For those who want to recite the Quran with accuracy and reverence, learning and mastering the rules of Madd is an essential part of studying Tajweed.

The Rules of Madd in Tajweed

The Rules of Madd in Tajweed are required for proper Quran recitation. Madd refers to the lengthening or shortening of specific letters in specific contexts. 

Madd is classified into two types: Madd Asli (Original Madd) and Madd Far’i (Secondary Madd).

Madd Asli (Original Madd):

Alif (ا): Alif (ا) elongates by one vowel length (harakah) when followed by a sukoon or carrying a hamza.

Waaw (): Waaw elongates when carrying a dhamma or followed by a Sukoon.

Yaa (): Yaa is elongated for one vowel length when it carries a kasra or is followed by a Sukoon.

Madd Far’i (Secondary Madd):

Waaw or Yaa is elongated by two vowel lengths when it follows Alif with a hamza.

Waaw (): The vowel length is twice as long when Alif or Waaw comes after Waaw with a dhamma.

Yaa (): The vowel length increases by two when Alif or Yaa follows Yaa with a kasra.

It is critical to note that the elongation should be natural and not forced. The use of Madd is influenced by specific rules governing pauses and stops in recitation.

Understanding the Rules of Madd is essential to achieving proper rhythm, flow, and beauty in Quranic recitation. It is advised to learn these rules under the supervision of a qualified teacher to ensure correct application and understanding, as Tajweed is an oral tradition.

Join Us to Learn

To understand the particulars of Quranic recitation, remember that Tajweed is a lifelong journey of refinement and that consistent practice under the supervision of a qualified teacher is required. If you enjoyed it and learned the Madd in Tajweed rules, please share it with your friends and family. 

Quran Tutors Online provides online courses to help our Muslim community improve their Quranic recitation skills and gain Allah’s blessing. With the assistance of our knowledgeable tutors, students can learn the Quran as cost-effectively and efficiently as possible, as well as correctly pronounce the verses. Enroll in our online Tajweed classes today to learn about the various types of Madd and how to use them.